Automated measurement of acetylcholinesterase activity in rat peripheral tissues.
The accepted mechanism of toxicity of many organophosphorous and carbamate insecticides is inhibition of acetylcholinesterase activity. In mammals, part of the toxicity assessment usually includes monitoring blood and/or brain acetylcholinesterase inhibition. Other tissues, however, contain cholinesterase activity (i.e. acetyl- and butyryl-cholinesterase), and the inhibition of that activity may be informative for a full appraisal of the toxicity profile. The present group of studies first optimized the variables for extraction and solubilization of cholinesterase activity from various rat tissues and then refined an existing automated method, in order to differentially assess acetyl and butyrylcholinesterase activity in those tissues. All these studies were conducted using tissues from untreated, Long-Evans, adult rats. The first studies determined the effect of Triton X-100 or salt (NaCl) on the extraction and solubilization of cholinesterase activity from retina, brain, striated muscle, diaphragm, and heart: phosphate buffer plus detergent (1% Triton X-100) yielded the highest activity for most tissues. For striated muscle, however, slightly more activity was extracted if the phosphate buffer contained both 1% Triton X-100 and 0.5 M NaCl. It was also noted that the degree of homogenization of some tissues (e.g. striated muscle) must be increased for maximal solubilization of all cholinesterase activity. Subsequent studies developed a method for assessing the level of acetylcholinesterase, butyrylcholinesterase and total cholinesterase activity in these tissues using an automated analyzer. In conclusion, automated assay of acetylcholinesterase activity in cholinergically innervated tissues in the rat (other than brain) is achievable and relatively convenient.
Lassiter, TL; Marshall, RS; Jackson, LC; Hunter, DL; Vu, JT; Padilla, S
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