An image regression motion prediction technique for MRI-guided radiotherapy evaluated in single-plane cine imaging.
PURPOSE: To develop and evaluate a novel motion prediction method for magnetic resonance image (MRI)-guided radiotherapy applications. This method, which we deem "image regression," predicts future tissue motion based on a weighted combination of previously observed motion states. Motion predictions are derived from a sliding window of recent motion states which are defined by a temporal sequence of images. A key advantage of this method compared to other motion prediction methods is that its computational complexity scales weekly with the number of spatial points predicted. Applications of gating latency reduction and improvement in deformable registration-based target tracking are demonstrated. METHODS: The image regression (IR) motion prediction method was developed and evaluated using 26.9 h of real-time imaging acquired from eight healthy volunteers and 13 patients using a 0.35 T MRI-guided radiotherapy system. Motion predictions were performed 0.25-0.33 s into the future using a weighted sum of previously observed motion states with image similarity-derived weights. The set of previously observed motion states were continuously updated to incorporate the changes in breathing patterns. The accuracy of the predicted radiotherapy gating decision, beam-on positive predictive value (PPV), and predicted vs ground-truth target centroid position errors are reported. The IR technique was compared against no prediction, linear extrapolation, and an established autoregressive linear prediction algorithm. The usage of IR to initialize the deformable registration and enhance the target tracking was demonstrated in the healthy volunteer studies. Deformable registration with IR initialization was compared to the initialization performed by current clinical software: no initialization, previous image registration initialization and linear motion extrapolation initialization. RESULTS: The average IR-predicted radiation beam gating decision accuracy was 95.8%, with a PPV of 95.7%, and median and 95th percentile centroid position errors of 0.63 and 2.08 mm, respectively. Compared to the autoregressive linear prediction method, gating accuracy was 1.15% greater, PPV was 1.61% greater, and median and 95th percentile centroid distances were 0.21 and 0.23 mm smaller. The IR-initialized registration on average converged within 0.50 mm of the ground-truth position in fewer than 10 iterations whereas the next best initialization method required more than 25 iterations. CONCLUSIONS: Image regression motion prediction has the potential to reduce the gating latencies and improve the speed and accuracy of deformable registration-based target tracking in MRI-guided radiotherapy.
Ginn, JS; Ruan, D; Low, DA; Lamb, JM
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