Association of increased intensity of prostate-specific antigen screening in younger African American men with improved prostate cancer outcomes.
5004 Background: African-American (AA) men are substantially more likely to present with lethal prostate cancer (PCa) at younger ages than non-Hispanic White men. Despite this disparity, AA men are poorly represented in the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening studies on which evidence-based PCa screening guidelines are based. This limits proper PSA screening guidance for AA men, especially for those younger than 55. We examined associations of PSA screening intensity with disease severity at diagnosis and prostate cancer-specific mortality (PCSM) in AA men < 55 years of age. Methods: The earliest recommended age to begin discussion of PSA screening is 40 years. We identified AA men aged 40-55 years, diagnosed with PCa from 2004 to 2017 within the Veterans Health Administration. PSA screening was identified using procedural codes. Screening intensity was defined as percentage of years screened within the pre-diagnostic observation period. This included up to 5 years prior to diagnosis. Multivariable logistic regression assessed the influence of PSA screening intensity on metastatic disease at diagnosis. Lead-time correction using published screening-dependent lead times was performed. PCSM was evaluated using Fine-Gray regression and non-cancer death as a competing event. Additional analysis was performed stratifying PSA screening into ‘High’ and ‘Low’ groups centered on the mean. Results: The cohort included 4,654 AA men at a mean age of 51.8 years with mean PSA screening rate of 53.2%. The pre-diagnostic observation period ranged from 1 to 5 years (median = 5 years). Median follow-up was 7 years. At diagnosis, there was a higher prevalence of Gleason sum ≥ 8 (Grade Group ≥ 4) and metastatic disease in the ‘Low’ group compared with the ‘High’ group ([Gleason sum ≥ 8 (Grade Group ≥ 4)]: 18.6% vs. 14.4%, p < 0.01; Metastatic disease at diagnosis: 3.7% vs. 1.4%, p < 0.01). Increased PSA screening intensity was associated with significantly reduced odds of metastatic disease at diagnosis (odds ratio: 0.61, 95% confidence interval (CI) = [0.47-0.81], p < 0.01) and decreased risk of PCSM (sub-distribution hazard ratio: 0.75, 95% CI = [0.59-0.95], p = 0.02). Conclusions: In this large national cohort of AA men aged 40 to 55 years, PSA screening increased intensity was associated with decreased risk of lethal disease and metastases at time of diagnosis and decreased PCSM. These data support the hypothesis that PSA screening and early prostate cancer detection may improve outcomes in younger AA men.
Qiao, E; Kotha, NV; Nalawade, V; Qian, A; Voora, RS; Nelson, TJ; Stewart, TF; Parsons, JK; Rose, BS
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