Elevated Levels of Growth/Differentiation Factor-15 in the Aqueous Humor and Serum of Glaucoma Patients.

Journal Article (Journal Article)

Dysregulated levels of growth/differentiation factor-15 (GDF15), a divergent member of the transforming growth factor-beta super family, have been found to be associated with the pathology of various diseases. In this study, we evaluated the levels of GDF15 in aqueous humor (AH) and serum samples derived from primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) and age- and gender-matched non-glaucoma (cataract) patients to assess the plausible association between GDF15 and POAG. GDF15 levels were determined using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and data analysis was performed using the Wilcoxon rank sum test, or the Kruskal-Wallis test and linear regression. GDF15 levels in the AH (n = 105) of POAG patients were significantly elevated (by 7.4-fold) compared to cataract patients (n = 117). Serum samples obtained from a subgroup of POAG patients (n = 41) also showed a significant increase in GDF15 levels (by 50%) compared to cataract patients. GDF15 levels were elevated in male, female, African American, and Caucasian POAG patients. This study reveals a significant and marked elevation of GDF15 levels in the AH of POAG patients compared to non-glaucoma cataract control patients. Although serum GDF15 levels were also elevated in POAG patients, the magnitude of difference was much smaller relative to that found in the AH.

Full Text

Duke Authors

Cited Authors

  • Maddala, R; Ho, LTY; Karnam, S; Navarro, I; Osterwald, A; Stinnett, SS; Ullmer, C; Vann, RR; Challa, P; Rao, PV

Published Date

  • January 29, 2022

Published In

Volume / Issue

  • 11 / 3

PubMed ID

  • 35160195

Pubmed Central ID

  • PMC8837086

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)

  • 2077-0383

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

  • 10.3390/jcm11030744


  • eng

Conference Location

  • Switzerland