Methane and NOx Emissions from Natural Gas Stoves, Cooktops, and Ovens in Residential Homes.

Journal Article (Journal Article)

Natural gas stoves in >40 million U.S. residences release methane (CH4 )─a potent greenhouse gas─through post-meter leaks and incomplete combustion. We quantified methane released in 53 homes during all phases of stove use: steady-state-off (appliance not in use), steady-state-on (during combustion), and transitory periods of ignition and extinguishment. We estimated that natural gas stoves emit 0.8-1.3% of the gas they use as unburned methane and that total U.S. stove emissions are 28.1 [95% confidence interval: 18.5, 41.2] Gg CH4 year-1 . More than three-quarters of methane emissions we measured originated during steady-state-off. Using a 20-year timeframe for methane, annual methane emissions from all gas stoves in U.S. homes have a climate impact comparable to the annual carbon dioxide emissions of 500 000 cars. In addition to methane emissions, co-emitted health-damaging air pollutants such as nitrogen oxides (NOx ) are released into home air and can trigger respiratory diseases. In 32 homes, we measured NOx (NO and NO2 ) emissions and found them to be linearly related to the amount of natural gas burned (r 2 = 0.76; p ≪ 0.01). Emissions averaged 21.7 [20.5, 22.9] ng NOx J-1 , comprised of 7.8 [7.1, 8.4] ng NO2 J-1 and 14.0 [12.8, 15.1] ng NO J-1 . Our data suggest that families who don't use their range hoods or who have poor ventilation can surpass the 1-h national standard of NO2 (100 ppb) within a few minutes of stove usage, particularly in smaller kitchens.

Full Text

Duke Authors

Cited Authors

  • Lebel, ED; Finnegan, CJ; Ouyang, Z; Jackson, RB

Published Date

  • February 2022

Published In

Volume / Issue

  • 56 / 4

Start / End Page

  • 2529 - 2539

PubMed ID

  • 35081712

Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)

  • 1520-5851

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)

  • 0013-936X

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

  • 10.1021/acs.est.1c04707


  • eng