Nutrition Status Optimization for Improved Perioperative Outcomes

Journal Article (Review;Journal)

Purpose of Review: Preoperative malnutrition is common in surgical patients and occurs in up to two-in-three major gastrointestinal and cancer surgery patients. Perioperative malnutrition is well-known to be associated with adverse clinical outcomes following major surgery. Yet, malnutrition is seldom screened for before surgery worldwide. This worldwide “silent epidemic” of perioperative malnutrition could easily be addressed as part of routine preoperative optimization. This review addresses the critical role of nutrition therapy in perioperative optimization to improve surgical outcomes. It describes recent evidence for screening and treatment and practical guidance on perioperative nutrition care pathways for patients requiring major surgery. Recent Findings: Preoperative assessments for surgical patients should include routine nutrition screening and assessment to identify nutritional risk and treat malnutrition when present. Preoperative nutritional interventions, including routine preoperative high protein oral nutrition supplements, immunonutrition, carbohydrate loading, and structured nutritional prehabilitation, should be standardized in all perioperative care pathways. Summary: Nutrition screening for malnutrition risk and standardized pathways for nutrition therapy should be a standard of care for all surgery patients and embedded in all preoperative clinic structures. We advocate that no patient will ever undergo elective surgery without nutrition screening and optimization.

Full Text

Duke Authors

Cited Authors

  • Williams, DGA; Wischmeyer, PE

Published Date

  • March 1, 2022

Published In

Volume / Issue

  • 12 / 1

Start / End Page

  • 59 - 64

Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)

  • 1523-3855

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)

  • 2167-6275

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

  • 10.1007/s40140-021-00504-y

Citation Source

  • Scopus