Sexual Dimorphism in Cardiovascular Biomarkers: Clinical and Research Implications.

Journal Article (Journal Article;Review)

Sex-based differences in cardiovascular disease presentation, diagnosis, and response to therapies are well established, but mechanistic understanding and translation to clinical applications are limited. Blood-based biomarkers have become an important tool for interrogating biologic pathways. Understanding sexual dimorphism in the relationship between biomarkers and cardiovascular disease will enhance our insights into cardiovascular disease pathogenesis in women, with potential to translate to improved individualized care for men and women with or at risk for cardiovascular disease. In this review, we examine how biologic sex associates with differential levels of blood-based biomarkers and influences the effect of biomarkers on disease outcomes. We further summarize key differences in blood-based cardiovascular biomarkers along central biologic pathways, including myocardial stretch/injury, inflammation, adipose tissue metabolism, and fibrosis pathways in men versus women. Finally, we present recommendations for leveraging our current knowledge of sex differences in blood-based biomarkers for future research and clinical innovation.

Full Text

Duke Authors

Cited Authors

  • Lau, ES; Binek, A; Parker, SJ; Shah, SH; Zanni, MV; Van Eyk, JE; Ho, JE

Published Date

  • February 18, 2022

Published In

Volume / Issue

  • 130 / 4

Start / End Page

  • 578 - 592

PubMed ID

  • 35175850

Pubmed Central ID

  • PMC8883873

Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)

  • 1524-4571

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

  • 10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.121.319916


  • eng

Conference Location

  • United States