Impact of pharmacist outreach on glucagon prescribing.

Journal Article (Journal Article)

BACKGROUND: Hypoglycemia is a major limiting factor in the glycemic management of diabetes. As a method of treating hypoglycemia, the American Diabetes Association recommends glucagon to be prescribed for all individuals at increased risk of clinically impactful hypoglycemia. Glucagon Emergency Kits have been shown to reduce emergency department visits and overall health care costs. Despite these known benefits, glucagon continues to be underprescribed. Previous pharmacist-led interventions embedded in a single clinic have been shown to positively affect the rate of glucagon prescribing in patients with diabetes. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to compare the rate of glucagon prescribing between quality improvement remote pharmacist outreach to multiple primary care and endocrinology specialty clinics and the control group in 1 month following a pharmacist-led provider outreach. METHODS: This was a single-center, 2-arm study with a simple randomization design. RESULTS: On pharmacist outreach, 61 of 109 patients (56.0%) in the outreach group were prescribed a glucagon product within 1 month of their primary care provider (PCP) or endocrinology appointment compared with 1 of 113 (0.9%) of patients in the control group (P < 0.001). Glucagon prescribing occurred in 25 of 35 Black patients (71.4%) compared with 36 of 73 white patients (49.3%) in the outreach group. Glucagon prescribing was associated with race (P = 0.03; chi-square test). CONCLUSIONS: The pharmacist-led provider outreach before a PCP or endocrinology appointment has a positive and statistically significant impact on glucagon prescribing rates. The pharmacist outreach had a higher impact on Black patients than white patients, possibly because of a lower rate of glucagon prescribing in Black patients before the outreach.

Full Text

Duke Authors

Cited Authors

  • Whitfield, N; Gregory, P; Liu, B; Spratt, S; Smith, BH

Published Date

  • 2022

Published In

Volume / Issue

  • 62 / 4

Start / End Page

  • 1384 - 1388.e1

PubMed ID

  • 35151583

Pubmed Central ID

  • PMC9271538

Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)

  • 1544-3450

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

  • 10.1016/j.japh.2022.01.017


  • eng

Conference Location

  • United States