Metastasis and Mortality in Men With Low- and Intermediate-Risk Prostate Cancer on Active Surveillance.
Active surveillance (AS) is a safe treatment option for men with low-risk, localized prostate cancer. However, the safety of AS for patients with intermediate-risk prostate cancer remains unclear.
Patients and methods
We identified men with NCCN-classified low-risk and favorable and unfavorable intermediate-risk prostate cancer diagnosed between 2001 and 2015 and initially managed with AS in the Veterans Health Administration. We analyzed progression to definitive treatment, metastasis, prostate cancer-specific mortality (PCSM), and all-cause mortality using cumulative incidences and multivariable competing-risks regression.
The cohort included 9,733 men, of whom 1,007 (10.3%) had intermediate-risk disease (773 [76.8%] favorable, 234 [23.2%] unfavorable), followed for a median of 7.6 years. The 10-year cumulative incidence of metastasis was significantly higher for patients with favorable (9.6%; 95% CI, 7.1%-12.5%; P<.001) and unfavorable intermediate-risk disease (19.2%; 95% CI, 13.4%-25.9%; P<.001) than for those with low-risk disease (1.5%; 95% CI, 1.2%-1.9%). The 10-year cumulative incidence of PCSM was also significantly higher for patients with favorable (3.7%; 95% CI, 2.3%-5.7%; P<.001) and unfavorable intermediate-risk disease (11.8%; 95% CI, 6.8%-18.4%; P<.001) than for those with low-risk disease (1.1%; 95% CI, 0.8%-1.4%). In multivariable competing-risks regression, favorable and unfavorable intermediate-risk patients had significantly increased risks of metastasis and PCSM compared with low-risk patients (all P<.001).
Compared with low-risk patients, those with favorable and unfavorable intermediate-risk prostate cancer managed with AS are at increased risk of metastasis and PCSM. AS may be an appropriate option for carefully selected patients with favorable intermediate-risk prostate cancer, though identification of appropriate candidates and AS protocols should be tested in future prospective studies.
Courtney, PT; Deka, R; Kotha, NV; Cherry, DR; Salans, MA; Nelson, TJ; Kumar, A; Luterstein, E; Yip, AT; Nalawade, V; Parsons, JK; Kader, AK; Stewart, TF; Rose, BS
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