Thrombomodulin increases the rate of thrombin inhibition by BPTI.
Thrombin undergoes allosteric modulation by thrombomodulin (TM) that results in a shift in macromolecular specificity, blocking fibrinogen clotting while enhancing protein C activation. The TM enhancement of protein C activation involves both an 8-fold decrease in Km and a 200-fold increase in kcat. Although TM-mediated conformational changes in thrombin have been detected by many techniques, the nature of these changes remains obscure. Access to the active center of thrombin is relatively restricted due to the presence of a large insertion loop at residue 60 (chymotrypsin numbering) that has been implicated in modeling studies as being responsible for poor inhibition by BPTI. Thrombin and the E192Q mutant, which binds BPTI much more tightly than thrombin, are both inhibited very slowly by BPTI. TM increases the rate of thrombin or thrombin E192Q inhibition by BPTI approximately 10-fold. When analyzed as slow tight binding inhibition, the TM effect on thrombin E192Q inhibition by BPTI is primarily on the first, reversible step in the reaction. Structural studies of the thrombin E192Q-BPTI complex have previously shown that the 60 loop lies over the BPTI, a position which requires 8 A movement at the apex of the 60 loop, and that BPTI is found in the same canonical orientation as in the trypsin complex. It follows that TM enhancement of the initial interaction of thrombin results in a conformation that favors interactions with BPTI, probably involving motion of the 60 loop.
Rezaie, AR; He, X; Esmon, CT
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