Malnutrition as a risk factor for post-operative morbidity in gynecologic cancer: Analysis using a national surgical outcomes database.

Journal Article (Journal Article)

OBJECTIVE: To assess, using a national surgical outcomes database, the association of various malnutrition definitions with post-operative morbidity in three gynecologic malignancies. METHODS: Patients undergoing resection of ovarian, uterine, or cervical cancer between 2005 and 2019 were identified using the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP) database. Patients were classified based on specific, pre-defined malnutrition criteria: severe malnutrition (Body Mass Index (BMI) <18.5 + 10% weight loss), European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism ((ESPEN1); BMI 18.5-22 + 10% weight loss), ESPEN2 (BMI < 18.5), American Cancer Society ((ACS); normal/overweight BMI + 10% weight loss), mild malnutrition (BMI 18.5-22), or albumin (<3.5 g/dL). Outcomes included 30-day major complications, readmission, reoperation. Modified Poisson regression estimated associations between definitions and outcomes. RESULTS: Of 76,290 total patients undergoing surgery, those meeting malnutrition definitions were: severe-98 (0.1%), ESPEN1-148 (0.2%), ESPEN2-877 (1.1%), ACS-1028 (1.3%), mild-2853 (3.7%), and albumin (11.1%). Complication rates were: unplanned readmission-5.5%, reoperation-1.7%, major complications-13.5%. For ovarian cancer, ESPEN2 malnutrition was associated with higher readmissions (risk ratio 1.69; 95% confidence interval 1.29-2.20), reoperations (2.53; 1.70-3.77), and complications (1.36; 1.20-1.54). For uterine cancer, ACS malnutrition was associated with readmissions (2.74; 2.09-3.59), reoperations (3.61; 2.29-5.71) and complications (3.92; 3.40-4.53). For cervical cancer, albumin<3.5 g/dL was associated with readmissions (1.48; 1.01-2.19), reoperations (2.25; 1.17-4.34), and complications (2.59; 2.11-3.17). Albumin<3.5 was associated with adverse outcomes in ovarian and uterine cancer. CONCLUSIONS: Preoperative risk assessments might be tailored using cancer-specific malnutrition criteria. Major complications, readmissions, and reoperations are all associated with the ESPEN2 definition for ovarian cancer, the ACS definition for uterine cancer, and with albumin<3.5 for all cancers.

Full Text

Duke Authors

Cited Authors

  • Goins, EC; Weber, JM; Truong, T; Moss, HA; Previs, RA; Davidson, BA; Havrilesky, LJ

Published Date

  • May 2022

Published In

Volume / Issue

  • 165 / 2

Start / End Page

  • 309 - 316

PubMed ID

  • 35241292

Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)

  • 1095-6859

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

  • 10.1016/j.ygyno.2022.01.030


  • eng

Conference Location

  • United States