The Effect of Various Dose Normalization Strategies When Implementing Linear Boltzmann Transport Equation Dose Calculation for Lung Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy Planning.
PURPOSE: To explore implications of various plan normalizations when implementing a linear Boltzmann transport equation solver dose calculation algorithm (LBTE) for lung stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). METHODS AND MATERIALS: Eighty-seven plans originally calculated with a convolution-superposition algorithm (CS) were recalculated with LBTE and normalized in 3 ways: prescription covering 95% of planning target volume (PTV), 99% of internal target volume (ITV), and keeping the original planned PTV coverage. Effect on delivered dose after implementing the new algorithm was quantified using change in total monitor units for each renormalization strategy. Treatment planning system-reported changes in PTV, ITV, and organ at risk (OAR) doses were also quantified, along with the feasibility of LBTE plans to meet institutional OAR planning objectives. RESULTS: LBTE renormalization resulted in monitor unit increases of 7.0 ± 8.8%, 0.31 ± 5.8%, and 7.9 ± 8.6% when normalizing to the PTV D95%, ITV D99%, and planned coverage, respectively. When normalizing to PTV D95%, the LBTE reported increased PTV and ITV D1% (Gy) relative to CS (median, 3.4% and 3.2%, respectively), and normalizing to ITV D99% showed a median 1.9% decrease. For LBTE plans, reported OAR doses were increased when normalizing to PTV D95% or planned coverage (median chest wall V30 Gy [cc] increase of 0.85 and 1.7 cc, respectively) and normalizing to ITV D99% resulted in decreased dose (median chest wall V30 Gy [cc] decrease of 1.8 cc). LBTE plans normalized to PTV D95% showed inferior ability to meet the OAR objectives, but reoptimizing kept the objectives manageable while maintaining PTV coverage. CONCLUSIONS: When transitioning from CS to LBTE dose calculation for lung SBRT, maintaining a PTV coverage-based normalization generally results in increased dose delivered relative to CS and increased reported target and OAR dose. In cases where PTV normalization results in unacceptably high doses to targets or OARs, normalizing based on ITV coverage can be considered to maintain similar target dose as CS.
Erickson, BG; Ackerson, BG; Kelsey, CR; Yin, F-F; Adamson, J; Cui, Y
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