Cholecystitis: association between ultrasound findings and surgical outcomes.
AIM: To identify sonographic signs of cholecystitis that correlate with surgical outcomes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Three hundred and thirty-three consecutive patients who underwent cholecystectomy between 22/06/2014 and 1/3/2016 and underwent abdominal ultrasound (US) within 7 days of surgery were included. Individual US signs, including gallstones, gallbladder distention, wall thickening, pericholecystic fluid, and abscess, were graded by two radiologists, 1 and 2. Outcomes included operative duration (OD), drain placement, partial cholecystectomy, conversion from laparoscopic to open cholecystectomy, surgical pathology, bile leak, infection, and 30-day readmission. US signs and outcomes were analysed using analysis of variance, chi-square test, or odds ratios (OR). RESULTS: Radiologist 1 reported 141/333 and radiologist 2 reported 128/333 patients showed gallbladder distention. For the subset with OD, radiologist 1 reported 140/320 and radiologist 2 reported 126/320 patients showed gallbladder distention. Distention was predictive of increased OD (radiologist 1, +23.2 minutes, p<0.0001; radiologist 2, +19.4 minutes, p=0.0003). Cases with gallbladder distention were more likely to have surgical drain placement (OR= 2.60; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.12-6.08, p=0.027 radiologist 1; OR=2.59; 95% CI: 1.13-5.95, p=0.025 radiologist 2). Wall thickening was present in 126/333 patients reported by radiologist 1 and 120/333 by radiologist 2. Cases with wall thickening were more likely to have drain placement (OR=2.66; 95% CI: 1.16-6.13, p=0.021 radiologist 1; OR=3.49; 95% CI: 1.49-8.16, p=0.004 radiologist 2). For the subset with OD, wall thickening was present for 121/320 reported by radiologist 1 and 116/320 by radiologist 2 and predicted longer OD (radiologist 1, +15.9 minutes, p=0.0033; radiologist 2, +13.3 minutes, p=0.0143). CONCLUSION: Gallbladder distention and wall thickening on US correlate with prolonged OD and surgical drain placement in patients with cholecystitis.
Van Roekel, D; LeBedis, CA; Santos, J; Paul, D; Qureshi, MM; Kasotakis, G; Gupta, A
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