Intraoperative Identification 9 and Location of Facial Nerve: Type of Facial Nerve Displacement - How to Use Monopolar Stimulator

Book Section

Intraoperative facial nerve monitoring (IOFNM) is a neurophysiological method whose main purpose is to inform the surgical team of the actual neural function—and, indirectly, of the position—of the facial nerve (N VII) so that the operative strategy can be consequently adjusted to avoid neural damage. The most commonly used—and therefore defined as “standard”—IOFNM techniques are direct electrical stimulation (DES) and free-running electromyography (EMG). DES allows for proper tracing of the course of N VII; the types of displacement reported have been correlated to tumor size and capsule adhesiveness in diverse studies. Functional changes in the activity of N VII—as detected by DES and EMG—also have a role in assessing postoperative functional prognosis. The technique of facial motor evoked potentials (FMEPs) is the most promising and latest frontier method in IOFNM as it surpasses most of the disadvantages of standard techniques.

Full Text

Duke Authors

Cited Authors

  • Mastronardi, L; Campione, A; Zomorodi, A; Di Scipio, E; Adornetti, A; Fukushima, T

Published Date

  • January 25, 2019

Book Title

  • Advances in Vestibular Schwannoma Microneurosurgery: Improving Results with New Technologies

Start / End Page

  • 83 - 94

International Standard Book Number 13 (ISBN-13)

  • 9783030031664

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

  • 10.1007/978-3-030-03167-1_9

Citation Source

  • Scopus