Comparison of Outcomes of Surgical Repair of Spontaneous Temporal Bone CSF Leaks and Encephaloceles Using Bone Cement and Autologous Material.
OBJECTIVE: To compare outcomes transmastoid repair of spontaneous middle fossa cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak using only bone cement (BC) versus only autologous material (AM) or combined materials (CM) with both bone cement and autologous material. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective Chart Review. SETTING: Tertiary Care Hospital. PATIENTS: Forty-three adult patients undergoing transmastoid repair of spontaneous middle fossa CSF leak between 2014 and 2020 (BC:12, AM:15, CR:16). INTERVENTIONS: Cortical mastoidectomy, identification of defect, and repair with BC (Cranios® hydroxyapatite), AM (local bone, fascia, fat, and/or cartilage), or CM (Cranios® combined with autologous materials). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Successful repair without recurrent CSF leak or encephalocele throughout follow up. RESULTS: Fifty-one percent of subjects were female. Mean age at repair was 58.6 years (SD 10.9). Mean BMI was 35.4 (SD 7.6; BC:36.3, AM:36.5, CM:33.6). Forty (93%) patients had successful repair without known recurrent CSF leak or encephalocele since surgery (BC:11, 91.6%; AM:14, 93.3%; CM:15, 93.8%; p = 0.49) over a mean length of follow up of 49.6 months (BC: 37.9, AM: 59.2, CR: 49.5). The difference in mean operative time amongst the groups was faster for patients using bone cement (BC: 100.2 min, AM: 182.8, CM: 133.2; p < 0.00001). CONCLUSIONS: BC, AM, and CM techniques each demonstrate effective and sustained means of repair for middle fossa CSF leak and encephalocele, even in the presence of multiple defects. Use of isolated BC offers a significant decrease in operative time with a noninferior outcome. Active CSF leak at the time of surgery is associated with increased risk of recurrence.
Hwa, TP; Patel, V; Eliades, SJ; Brant, JA; Bigelow, DC; Ruckenstein, MJ
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