Health-Related Quality of Life by Gulf War Illness Case Status.

Journal Article (Journal Article)

This study examines how health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and related indices vary by Gulf War illness (GWI) case status. The study population included veterans from the Gulf War Era Cohort and Biorepository (n = 1116). Outcomes were physical and mental health from the Veterans RAND 12 and depression, post-traumatic stress (PTSD), sleep disturbance, and pain. Kansas (KS) and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) GWI definitions were used. Kansas GWI derived subtypes included GWI (met symptom criteria; no exclusionary conditions (KS GWI: Sym+/Dx-)) and those without GWI: KS noncase (1): Sym+/Dx+, KS noncase (2): Sym-/Dx+, and noncase (3): Sym-/Dx-. CDC-derived subtypes included CDC GWI severe, CDC GWI mild-to-moderate and CDC noncases. Case status and outcomes were examined using multivariable regression adjusted for sociodemographic and military-related characteristics. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine associations between GWI case status and binary measures for depression, PTSD, and severe pain. The KS GWI: Sym+/Dx- and KS noncase (1): Sym+/Dx+ groups had worse mental and physical HRQOL outcomes than veterans in the KS noncase (2): Sym-/Dx+ and KS noncase (3): Sym-/Dx- groups (ps < 0.001). Individuals who met the CDC GWI severe criteria had worse mental and physical HRQOL outcomes than those meeting the CDC GWI mild-to-moderate or CDC noncases (ps < 0.001). For other outcomes, results followed a similar pattern. Relative to the less symptomatic comparison subtypes, veterans who met the Kansas symptom criteria, regardless of exclusionary conditions, and those who met the CDC GWI severe criteria experienced lower HRQOL and higher rates of depression, PTSD, and severe pain.

Full Text

Duke Authors

Cited Authors

  • Gifford, EJ; Boyle, SH; Vahey, J; Sims, KJ; Efird, JT; Chesnut, B; Stafford, C; Upchurch, J; Williams, CD; Helmer, DA; Hauser, ER

Published Date

  • April 7, 2022

Published In

Volume / Issue

  • 19 / 8

PubMed ID

  • 35457293

Pubmed Central ID

  • PMC9026791

Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)

  • 1660-4601

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

  • 10.3390/ijerph19084425


  • eng

Conference Location

  • Switzerland