JCL Roundtable. Obesity, Diabetes, and Liver Disease in Relation to Cardiovascular Risk.
Metabolic risk for cardiovascular and other systems includes much more than just LDL cholesterol. This JCL Roundtable brings together 3 experts to address new opportunities to reduce the risks posed by obesity, diabetes, and fatty liver disease. Successful nutritional approaches to weight loss are diverse and need to be matched with individual preferences. Topiramate plus extended-release phentermine has been shown to promote meaningful weight loss in randomized trials, but the patented drug combination is expensive. Clinical experience suggests that generic topiramate and phentermine may also be effective. Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RAs) and sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2is) have shown favorable tolerability and efficacy for cardiovascular disease in randomized trials, an achievement without precedent among earlier diabetes medications. These 2 drug classes differ in their effects. GLP-1 RAs decrease atherosclerotic cardiovascular events and also decrease hemoglobin A1c, body weight, blood pressure, and possibly diabetic renal disease. SGLT2 inhibitors are effective in reducing heart failure events even among nondiabetic patients. They also decrease progression of diabetic renal disease. The presence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease signifies risk for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease as well as cirrhosis and serious hepatic decompensation, including hepatocellular carcinoma. The key to identifying cirrhosis risk is to assess pre-emptively liver fibrosis, which can be predicted initially with blood test risk scores (e.g., FIB-4 index) and more definitively by transient elastography and other imaging techniques and/or liver biopsy. Some medications approved for the treatment of type 2 diabetes may reduce liver fat (SGLT2 inhibitors, insulin) or even reverse steatohepatitis in paired liver biopsy studies (GLP-1 RAs or pioglitazone) Overall the field of preventive metabolic medicine is expanding. Clinical lipidologists should become familiar with recent advances.
Wyne, KL; Litwin, SE; Cusi, K; Guyton, JR
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