Use of novel lab assays to examine the effect of pyrethroid-treated bed nets on blood-feeding success and longevity of highly insecticide-resistant Anopheles gambiae s.l. mosquitoes.

Journal Article (Journal Article)

BACKGROUND: There is a pressing need to improve understanding of how insecticide resistance affects the functional performance of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs). Standard WHO insecticide resistance monitoring assays are designed for resistance surveillance and do not necessarily provide insight into how different frequencies, mechanisms or intensities of resistance affect the ability of ITNs to reduce malaria transmission. METHODS: The current study presents some novel laboratory-based assays that attempt to better simulate realistic exposure of mosquitoes to ITNs and to quantify impact of exposure not only on instantaneous mortality, but also on blood-feeding and longevity, two traits that are central to transmission. The assays evaluated the performance of a standard ITN (Permanet® 2.0; Vestergaard Frandsen), a 'next generation' combination ITN with a resistance-breaking synergist (Permanet® 3.0) and an untreated net (UTN), against field-derived Anopheles gambiae sensu lato mosquitoes from Côte d'Ivoire exhibiting a 1500-fold increase in pyrethroid resistance relative to a standard susceptible strain. RESULTS: The study revealed that the standard ITN induced negligible instantaneous mortality against the resistant mosquitoes, whereas the resistance-breaking net caused high mortality and a reduction in blood-feeding. However, both ITNs still impacted long-term survival relative to the UTN. The impact on longevity depended on feeding status, with blood-fed mosquitoes living longer than unfed mosquitoes following ITN exposure. Exposure to both ITNs also reduced the blood-feeding success, the time spent on the net and blood-feeding duration, relative to the untreated net. CONCLUSION: Although a standard ITN did not have as substantial instantaneous impact as the resistance-breaking net, it still had significant impacts on traits important for transmission. These results highlight the benefit of improved bioefficacy assays that allow for realistic exposure and consider sub- or pre-lethal effects to help assess the functional significance of insecticide resistance.

Full Text

Duke Authors

Cited Authors

  • Barreaux, P; Koella, JC; N'Guessan, R; Thomas, MB

Published Date

  • March 28, 2022

Published In

Volume / Issue

  • 15 / 1

Start / End Page

  • 111 -

PubMed ID

  • 35346334

Pubmed Central ID

  • PMC8962112

Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)

  • 1756-3305

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

  • 10.1186/s13071-022-05220-y

Language

  • eng

Conference Location

  • England