The association of indoor heat exposure with diabetes and respiratory 9-1-1 calls through emergency medical dispatch and services documentation.
BACKGROUND: People with pre-existing medical conditions, who spend a large proportion of their time indoors, are at risk of emergent morbidities from elevated indoor heat exposures. In this study, indoor heat of structures wherein exposed people received Grady Emergency Services based care in Atlanta, GA, U.S., was measured from May to September 2016. METHOD: ology: In this case-control study, analyses were conducted to investigate the effect of indoor heat on the odds of 9-1-1 calls for diabetic (n = 90 cases) and separately, for respiratory (n = 126 cases), conditions versus heat-insensitive emergencies (n = 698 controls). Generalized Additive Models considered both linear and non-linear indoor heat and health outcome associations using thin-plate regression splines. RESULTS: Hotter and more humid indoor conditions were non-linearly associated with an increasing likelihood of receiving emergency care for complications of diabetes and severe respiratory distress. Higher heat indices were associated with increased odds of a diabetes (odds ratio for change from 30 to 31 °C: 1.12, 95% CI: 1.08-1.16) or respiratory 9-1-1 medical call versus control (odds ratio for change from 34 to 35 °C: 1.18, 95% CI: 1.09-1.28) call. Both diabetic and respiratory distress patients were more likely to be African-American and/or have comorbidities. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, the statistical association of indoor heat exposure with emergency morbidities (diabetic, respiratory) was demonstrated. The study also showcased the value and utility of data gathered by emergency medical dispatch and services from inaccessible private indoor sources (i.e., domiciles) for environmental health.
Uejio, CK; Joiner, AP; Gonsoroski, E; Tamerius, JD; Jung, J; Moran, TP; Yancey, AH
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