Feasibility, Acceptability, and Preliminary Efficacy of a Gamified Mobile Health Contingency Management Intervention for PrEP Adherence Among Black MSM.
Oral HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is effective at preventing HIV. However, low adherence is common and undermines these protective effects. This is particularly relevant for groups with disproportionately higher rates of HIV, including Black men who have sex with men (MSM). The current study tested the feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary efficacy of a gamified mobile health contingency management intervention for PrEP adherence-called mSMART (Mobile App-Based Personalized Solutions for Medication Adherence of Rx Pill Tool). Fifteen Black MSM already prescribed PrEP in the community completed baseline and follow-up assessments separated by 8 weeks of using mSMART. Regarding feasibility, there was no study attrition, no mSMART functional difficulties that significantly interfered with use, and a mean rate of 82% daily mSMART use. Acceptability ratings were in the moderately to extremely satisfied range for factors such as willingness to recommend mSMART to others and user-friendliness, and in the low range for ratings on difficulty learning how to use mSMART. Scores on a system usability measure were in the acceptable range for 73% of the sample. Qualitative analysis of follow-up interviews identified individual components of mSMART that could be modified in future iterations to make it more engaging. PrEP composite adherence scores from biomarkers indicated an improvement from baseline to follow-up with a medium effect size, as well as a decrease in the number of perceived barriers to medication adherence. Findings indicate a future efficacy trial is needed to examine the effects of this gamified mobile health contingency management intervention on PrEP adherence.
Mitchell, JT; Burns, CM; Atkinson, B; Cottrell, M; Frye, JK; McKellar, MS; Kashuba, ADM; McClernon, FJ; Okeke, NL
Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)