Succination of Protein Disulfide Isomerase Links Mitochondrial Stress and Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in the Adipocyte During Diabetes.

Journal Article (Journal Article)

AIMS: Protein succination by fumarate increases in the adipose tissue of diabetic mice and in adipocytes matured in high glucose as a result of glucotoxicity-driven mitochondrial stress. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) oxidoreductase protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) is succinated in adipocytes that are matured in high glucose, and in this study we investigated whether succination would alter PDI oxidoreductase activity, directly linking mitochondrial stress and ER stress. RESULTS: Protein succination and the ER stress marker C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) were diminished after pharmaceutical targeting of mitochondrial stress with the chemical uncoupler niclosamide in adipocytes matured in high-glucose concentrations. PDI was succinated by fumarate on both CXXC-containing active sites, contributing to reduced enzymatic activity. Succinated PDI decreased reductase activity in adipocytes matured in high glucose, and in db/db epididymal adipose tissue, in association with increased levels of CHOP. PDI succination was increased in fumarase knockdown adipocytes, leading to reduced PDI oxidoreductase activity, increased CHOP levels, and pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion, confirming the specific role of elevated fumarate levels in contributing to ER stress. In addition, PDI succination and ER stress were decreased, and PDI reductase activity was restored when exposure to chronic high glucose was limited, highlighting the importance of calorie restriction in the improvement of adipocyte metabolic function. INNOVATION: These experiments identify PDI succination as a novel biochemical mechanism linking altered mitochondrial metabolism to ER stress in the adipocyte during diabetes. CONCLUSION: The current study demonstrates that early biochemical changes in mitochondrial metabolism have important implications for the development of adipocyte stress. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 27, 1281-1296.

Full Text

Duke Authors

Cited Authors

  • Manuel, AM; Walla, MD; Faccenda, A; Martin, SL; Tanis, RM; Piroli, GG; Adam, J; Kantor, B; Mutus, B; Townsend, DM; Frizzell, N

Published Date

  • December 1, 2017

Published In

Volume / Issue

  • 27 / 16

Start / End Page

  • 1281 - 1296

PubMed ID

  • 28376661

Pubmed Central ID

  • PMC5655420

Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)

  • 1557-7716

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

  • 10.1089/ars.2016.6853

Language

  • eng

Conference Location

  • United States