Infants' diminished response to DTaP vaccine is associated with exposure to organophosphate esters.
Organophosphate esters (OPEs) are commonly applied as flame retardants and plasticizers. Toxicological studies suggest exposure effects on immune endpoints, raising concerns as infants' OPE exposures are elevated compared to older children and adults due to hand-to-mouth behavior and breastfeeding. Here, we sought to evaluate the immune responsiveness of infants to a neoantigen (e.g., a newly encountered antigen) in the presence of OPE exposures. As a proxy for immune responsiveness, children were given three doses of the Diphtheria, Tetanus, and Pertussis (DTaP) vaccine as recommended, and diphtheria and tetanus antibodies were evaluated in serum samples collected when children were 12 months old (n = 84). Titers were compared, based on maximum sample overlap, to measurements of OPE metabolites in spot urine samples collected before vaccination (age 2 months, n = 73) and at the time of antibody assessment (12 months of age, n = 46). Metabolites of two chlorinated OPEs were significantly associated with diminished antibodies for diphtheria and tetanus. A metabolite of tris (1,3-dichloroisopropyl)phosphate (TDCIPP) measured at 2 months was associated with decreased diphtheria antibodies (-0.07 IU/mL per log10 increase in metabolite). One metabolite of tris(2-chloroisopropyl)phosphate (TCIPP) measured at 12 months was associated with decreased tetanus antibodies (-0.57 IU/mL per log10 increase in metabolite). These results provide some preliminary insights for OPE exposure impacts on vaccine responses in early life and may have important implications for immune health through childhood and adulthood.
Hammel, SC; Nordone, S; Zhang, S; Lorenzo, AM; Eichner, B; Moody, MA; Harrington, L; Gandee, J; Schmidt, L; Smith, S; Stapleton, HM; Hoffman, K
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