Impact of noncommunicable diseases on direct medical costs and worker productivity, Saudi Arabia.

Journal Article (Journal Article)


The prevalence of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) has been increasing in Saudi Arabia.


Our objective was to estimate the effect of NCDs on direct medical costs and workforce productivity in Saudi Arabia.


To estimate direct medical costs, we estimated the unit cost of treating 10 NCDs, then multiplied the unit cost by disease prevalence and summed across diseases. To estimate workforce productivity losses, we multiplied gross domestic product per person in the labour force by the loss in productivity from each NCD and the prevalence in the labour force of each NCD.


We estimated annual direct medical costs of 11.8 billion international dollars (Int$) for the 10 NCDs assessed (13.6% of total annual health expenditure). We estimated workforce productivity losses of Int$ 75.7 billion (4.5% of gross domestic product).


The economic burden of NCDs in Saudi Arabia - particularly the effect on worker productivity - is substantial.

Full Text

Duke Authors

Cited Authors

  • Malkin, J; Finkelstein, E; Baid, D; Alqunaibet, A; Almudarra, S; Herbst, CH; Dong, D; Alsukait, R; El-Saharty, S; Algwizani, A

Published Date

  • April 28, 2022

Published In

Volume / Issue

  • 28 / 4

Start / End Page

  • 296 - 301

PubMed ID

  • 35545911

Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)

  • 1687-1634

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)

  • 1020-3397

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

  • 10.26719/emhj/22.015


  • eng