Parent-Endorsed Sex Differences in Toddlers with and Without ASD: Utilizing the M-CHAT.
Journal Article (Journal Article)
Sex differences in typical development can provide context for understanding ASD. Baron-Cohen (Trends Cogn Sci 6(6):248-254, 2002) suggested ASD could be considered an extreme expression of normal male, compared to female, phenotypic profiles. In this paper, sex-specific M-CHAT scores from N = 53,728 18-month-old toddlers, including n = 185 (32 females) with ASD, were examined. Results suggest a nuanced view of the "extreme male brain theory of autism". At an item level, almost every male versus female disadvantage in the broader population was consistent with M-CHAT vulnerabilities in ASD. However, controlling for total M-CHAT failures, this male disadvantage was more equivocal and many classically ASD-associated features were found more common in non-ASD. Within ASD, females showed relative strengths in joint attention, but impairments in imitation.
- Øien, RA; Hart, L; Schjølberg, S; Wall, CA; Kim, ES; Nordahl-Hansen, A; Eisemann, MR; Chawarska, K; Volkmar, FR; Shic, F
- January 2017
Volume / Issue
- 47 / 1
Start / End Page
- 126 - 134
Pubmed Central ID
Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)
International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)