Current Landscape of Generative Adversarial Networks for Facial Deidentification in Dermatology: Systematic Review and Evaluation
Background: Deidentifying facial images is critical for protecting patient anonymity in the era of increasing tools for automatic image analysis in dermatology. Objective: The aim of this paper was to review the current literature in the field of automatic facial deidentification algorithms. Methods: We conducted a systematic search using a combination of headings and keywords to encompass the concepts of facial deidentification and privacy preservation. The MEDLINE (via PubMed), Embase (via Elsevier), and Web of Science (via Clarivate) databases were queried from inception to May 1, 2021. Studies of incorrect design and outcomes were excluded during the screening and review process. Results: A total of 18 studies reporting on various methodologies of facial deidentification algorithms were included in the final review. The study methods were rated individually regarding their utility for use cases in dermatology pertaining to skin color and pigmentation preservation, texture preservation, data utility, and human detection. Most studies that were notable in the literature addressed feature preservation while sacrificing skin color and texture. Conclusions: Facial deidentification algorithms are sparse and inadequate for preserving both facial features and skin pigmentation and texture quality in facial photographs. A novel approach is needed to ensure greater patient anonymity, while increasing data access for automated image analysis in dermatology for improved patient care.
Park, C; Jeong, HK; Henao, R; Kheterpal, M
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