Lysinibacillus macroides-mediated control of cellulose-producing morphotype of Salmonella.

Journal Article (Journal Article)


Soil-dwelling human pathogens like Salmonella are transmitted by fresh produce such as tomato, spinach, onion and cabbage. With >2600 serovars, it is difficult to classify the good plant colonizers from the non-colonizers. Generally, soil microbiota are classified as autochthonous or zymogenous organisms, based on their ability to survive in soil. However, such information for soil-dwelling human pathogens is not available Thus there is a need to classify these organisms for designing a strategy to prevent their outbreak. Moreover, soil harbours a plethora of microbes, which can be screened for competitive organisms to control such human pathogens.


In this study, we examined whether the morphotype based on the attachment factors (e.g., cellulose and curli fimbri) of Salmonella was important for its colonization of roots. Secondly, we tracked the location of the bacteria in the plant cell. Interestingly, most of the epidermal cells occupied by Salmonella showed propidium iodide-positive nuclei. As an extension of the study, a screening of competitive rhizospheric bacteria was performed. One isolate, identified as Lysinibacillus macroides, was able to inhibit the biofilm of Salmonella and subsequently reduced its colonization on roots.


Based on this study, we classified the Rdar (red, dry and rough) morphotypes as good plant colonists. The ability to colonize and subsequent kill the live plant cell throws light on the zymogenous life cycle of soil-dwelling Salmonella. Additionally, Lysinibacillus macroides served as a biocontrol agent by reducing the burden of Salmonella in various vegetables. Such organisms can further be explored to prevent contamination of the food chain. © 2022 Society of Chemical Industry.

Full Text

Duke Authors

Cited Authors

  • Karmakar, K; Bhattacharya, R; Sharma, A; Parmar, K; Nath, U; Nataraja, KN; N, E; Sharma, G; Chakravortty, D

Published Date

  • November 2022

Published In

Volume / Issue

  • 102 / 14

Start / End Page

  • 6491 - 6501

PubMed ID

  • 35567417

Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)

  • 1097-0010

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)

  • 0022-5142

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

  • 10.1002/jsfa.12016


  • eng