The Association Between Cardiometabolic Risk Factors and Frailty in Older Adults: A Systematic Review.

Journal Article (Review;Journal Article)

Background and objectives

Enhanced management and prevention of frailty depend on our understanding of the association between potentially modifiable risk factors and frailty. However, the associations between potentially modifiable cardiometabolic risk factors and frailty are not clear. The purpose of this review was to appraise and synthesize the current evidence examining the associations between the cardiometabolic risk factors and frailty.

Research design and methods

Multiple databases, including MEDLINE (via PubMed), Embase (via Elsevier), and Web of Science (via Clarivate), were searched extensively. Studies that examined cardiometabolic risk factors and frailty as main predictors and outcome of interest, respectively, among older adults (≥60 years) were included. The Joanna Briggs Institute critical appraisal tools were used to evaluate the quality of studies. PRISMA (2020) guided this review, and findings were synthesized without meta-analysis. This systematic review was registered in PROSPERO (CRD42021252565).


Twelve studies met the eligibility criteria and were included in the review. Abdominal obesity, hyperglycemia, and multiple co-occurring cardiometabolic risk factors were associated with the increased likelihood of frailty in older adults. There was inconsistency across the studies regarding the associations between dyslipidemia, elevated blood pressure, and frailty.

Discussion and implications

Understanding the association between cardiometabolic risk factors and frailty can have translational benefits in developing tailored interventions for the prevention and management of frailty. More studies are needed to validate predictive and clinically significant associations between single and specific combinations of co-occurring cardiometabolic risk factors and frailty.

Full Text

Duke Authors

Cited Authors

  • Shakya, S; Bajracharya, R; Ledbetter, L; Cary, MP

Published Date

  • January 2022

Published In

Volume / Issue

  • 6 / 5

Start / End Page

  • igac032 -

PubMed ID

  • 35795135

Pubmed Central ID

  • PMC9250659

Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)

  • 2399-5300

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)

  • 2399-5300

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

  • 10.1093/geroni/igac032


  • eng