Integrated Visualization Highlighting Retinal Changes in Retinopathy of Prematurity From 3-Dimensional Optical Coherence Tomography Data.
IMPORTANCE: Early diagnosis of plus disease is critical in the management of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). However, there is substantial interexpert disagreement in the diagnosis of plus disease based on vascular changes alone. Information derived from optical coherence tomography (OCT) may help characterize the severity of vascular and structural abnormalities in ROP. OBJECTIVE: To describe integrated visualization of 3-dimensional (3-D) data from investigational swept-source OCT optimized to delineate retinal vascular and microanatomical features in eyes with and without ROP. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: This cross-sectional, observational report of OCT was captured in the prospective Study of Eye Imaging in Preterm Infants (BabySTEPS) designed in July 2016 at the Duke Health Intensive Care Nursery. Between December 2018 and August 2019, 2 preterm infants born at 24 and 30 weeks' gestation were enrolled, underwent ROP screening, and were imaged at those screening visits. Data at 36 weeks' postmenstrual age were analyzed via this visualization developed between September 2020 and May 2021. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Superimposed en face retinal vascular shadow view (RVSV) montages and thickness maps were used along with OCT B-scans to evaluate retinal vasculature and cross-section in eyes with and without ROP. RESULTS: In the right eyes of 2 infants, 3-D data were integrated and visualized from investigational bedside OCT imaging at the posterior pole. In the infant who developed type 1 ROP, RVSV-OCT confirmed presence of dilated and tortuous posterior pole vessels, shunting, and incomplete perifoveal vascular development, resulting in a temporal notch of avascular retina in zone 1. The thickness map revealed irregular pockets of thickening and thinning, and integrated visualization outlined the demarcation between thicker vascularized retina and thinner avascular fovea and presence of extraretinal neovascularization overlying elevated vessels in the superior arcades. In the infant without ROP (stage 0), RVSV-OCT revealed no abnormal vascular findings at the posterior pole. The integrated visualization showed a dome-shaped retinal thickening at the fovea, which was confirmed as macular edema. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: In 2 preterm infants in BabySTEPS, 3-D visualization of OCT findings during the ongoing ROP disease process demonstrated supplemental information about the retinal vasculature and microanatomy that can be useful to clinicians. These additional details provided by OCT could be integrated into future ROP screening methods with artificial intelligence-based analytics.
Mangalesh, S; Seely, KR; Tran-Viet, D; Tai, V; Chen, X; Prakalapakorn, SG; Freedman, SF; Toth, CA; BabySTEPS Group,
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