Acute Decompensated Heart Failure in the Setting of Acute Coronary Syndrome.
Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is frequently complicated by evidence of heart failure (HF). Those at highest risk for acute decompensated HF in the setting of ACS (ACS-HF) are older, female, and have preexisting heart disease, type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and/or kidney disease. The presence of ACS-HF is strongly associated with higher mortality and more frequent readmissions, especially for HF. Low implementation of guideline-directed medical therapy has further complicated the clinical care of this high-risk population. Improved utilization of current therapies, coupled with further investigation of strategies to manage ACS-HF, is desperately needed to improve outcomes in this vulnerable population, and the results of currently ongoing or recently concluded ACS-HF studies in this population are of great interest. In this review, we explore the pathophysiology, epidemiology, risk factors, and outcomes for patients with ACS-HF, and describe both existing evidence for management of this challenging condition and areas requiring further research.
Harrington, J; Jones, WS; Udell, JA; Hannan, K; Bhatt, DL; Anker, SD; Petrie, MC; Vedin, O; Butler, J; Hernandez, AF
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