Myocardial Strain Evaluation with Cardiovascular MRI: Physics, Principles, and Clinical Applications.
Myocardial strain is a measure of myocardial deformation, which is a more sensitive imaging biomarker of myocardial disease than the commonly used ventricular ejection fraction. Although myocardial strain is commonly evaluated by using speckle-tracking echocardiography, cardiovascular MRI (CMR) is increasingly performed for this purpose. The most common CMR technique is feature tracking (FT), which involves postprocessing of routinely acquired cine MR images. Other CMR strain techniques require dedicated sequences, including myocardial tagging, strain-encoded imaging, displacement encoding with stimulated echoes, and tissue phase mapping. The complex systolic motion of the heart can be resolved into longitudinal strain, circumferential strain, radial strain, and torsion. Myocardial strain metrics include strain, strain rate, displacement, velocity, torsion, and torsion rate. Wide variability exists in the reference ranges for strain dependent on the imaging technique, analysis software, operator, patient demographics, and hemodynamic factors. In anticancer therapy cardiotoxicity, CMR myocardial strain can help identify left ventricular dysfunction before the decline of ejection fraction. CMR myocardial strain is also valuable for identifying patients with left ventricle dyssynchrony who will benefit from cardiac resynchronization therapy. CMR myocardial strain is also useful in ischemic heart disease, cardiomyopathies, pulmonary hypertension, and congenital heart disease. The authors review the physics, principles, and clinical applications of CMR strain techniques. Online supplemental material is available for this article. ©RSNA, 2022.
Rajiah, PS; Kalisz, K; Broncano, J; Goerne, H; Collins, JD; François, CJ; Ibrahim, E-S; Agarwal, PP
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