Plasma metabolites associated with functional and clinical outcomes in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction with and without type 2 diabetes.

Journal Article (Journal Article)

Heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) is increasingly treated with medications for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Whether metabolic derangements in HFrEF and T2DM are associated with differential outcomes remains unclear. Therefore, understanding molecular pathways in HFrEF and T2DM and their effects on clinical endpoints is important. The FIGHT trial randomized 300 individuals with HFrEF and a recent HF hospitalization to liraglutide (a GLP-1 receptor agonist) versus placebo to assess effects on mortality, HF rehospitalization, and 6-month change in NT-ProBNP. Although the trial showed no clinical benefit of liraglutide, the trial population was highly enriched for individuals with T2DM. Sixty metabolites were quantified via mass spectrometry in plasma from 254 FIGHT participants (N = 147 (57.9%) with T2DM). Principal components analysis reduced the high number of correlated metabolites into uncorrelated factors. The association of factor levels with 90-day changes in 6-min walk distance (6MWD) and NT-proBNP, and with time to mortality or HF hospitalization were evaluated. There were no changes in metabolite factors according to treatment assignment. However, in analyses stratified by T2DM status, changes in five plasma metabolite factors correlated with changes in functional outcomes beyond adjustment: factor 2 (branched-chain amino acids [BCAA]) correlated with changes in NT-proBNP (ρ = - 0.291, p = 4 × 10-4) and 6MWD (ρ= 0.265, p = 0.011); factor 1 (medium-chain acylcarnitines;  ρ = 0.220, p = 0.008), factor 4 (long-chain dicarboxylacylcarnitines; ρ = 0.191, p = 0.019), factor 5 (long-chain acylcarnitines; ρ = 0.198, p = 0.017), and factor 8 (urea cycle metabolites; ρ = - 0.239, p = 4 × 10-3), correlated with change in NT-proBNP. Factor 4 was associated with time-to-event (HR = 1.513 [95% CI 1.208-1.896], p = 3 × 10-4) with a trend towards stronger prognostic effect in T2DM (T2DM: p = 1 × 10-3, non-T2DM: p = 0.1). We identified metabolites of BCAA, urea cycle and fatty acid metabolism as biomarkers of HFrEF outcomes, with observed differences in HFrEF patients with T2DM. Such biomarkers might enable future diagnostic or therapeutic interventions in individuals with HFrEF and T2DM.Trial Registration: Identifier: NCT01800968. First posted: February 28, 2013.

Full Text

Duke Authors

Cited Authors

  • Lerman, JB; Giamberardino, SN; Hernandez, AF; Felker, GM; Shah, SH; McGarrah, RW

Published Date

  • June 2, 2022

Published In

Volume / Issue

  • 12 / 1

Start / End Page

  • 9183 -

PubMed ID

  • 35654972

Pubmed Central ID

  • PMC9163122

Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)

  • 2045-2322

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

  • 10.1038/s41598-022-12973-0


  • eng

Conference Location

  • England