PKR Binds Enterovirus IRESs, Displaces Host Translation Factors, and Impairs Viral Translation to Enable Innate Antiviral Signaling.

Journal Article (Journal Article)

For RNA virus families except Picornaviridae, viral RNA sensing includes Toll-like receptors and/or RIG-I. Picornavirus RNAs, whose 5' termini are shielded by a genome-linked protein, are predominately recognized by MDA5. This has important ramifications for adaptive immunity, as MDA5-specific patterns of type-I interferon (IFN) release are optimal for CD4+T cell TH1 polarization and CD8+T cell priming. We are exploiting this principle for cancer immunotherapy with recombinant poliovirus (PV), PVSRIPO, the type 1 (Sabin) PV vaccine containing a rhinovirus type 2 internal ribosomal entry site (IRES). Here we show that PVSRIPO-elicited MDA5 signaling is preceded by early sensing of the IRES by the double-stranded (ds)RNA-activated protein kinase (PKR). PKR binding to IRES stem-loop domains 5-6 led to dimerization and autoactivation, displaced host translation initiation factors, and suppressed viral protein synthesis. Early PKR-mediated antiviral responses tempered incipient viral translation and the activity of cytopathogenic viral proteinases, setting up accentuated MDA5 innate inflammation in response to PVSRIPO infection. IMPORTANCE Among the RIG-I-like pattern recognition receptors, MDA5 stands out because it senses long dsRNA duplexes independent of their 5' features (RIG-I recognizes viral [v]RNA 5'-ppp blunt ends). Uniquely among RNA viruses, the innate defense against picornaviruses is controlled by MDA5. We show that prior to engaging MDA5, recombinant PV RNA is sensed upon PKR binding to the viral IRES at a site that overlaps with the footprint for host translation factors mediating 40S subunit recruitment. Our study demonstrates that innate antiviral type-I IFN responses orchestrated by MDA5 involve separate innate modules that recognize distinct vRNA features and interfere with viral functions at multiple levels.

Full Text

Duke Authors

Cited Authors

  • Dobrikov, MI; Dobrikova, EY; McKay, ZP; Kastan, JP; Brown, MC; Gromeier, M

Published Date

  • June 28, 2022

Published In

Volume / Issue

  • 13 / 3

Start / End Page

  • e0085422 -

PubMed ID

  • 35652592

Pubmed Central ID

  • PMC9239082

Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)

  • 2150-7511

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

  • 10.1128/mbio.00854-22

Language

  • eng

Conference Location

  • United States