Effect of Azithromycin on Venetoclax Pharmacokinetics in Healthy Volunteers: Implications for Dosing Venetoclax with P-gp Inhibitors.
INTRODUCTION: Venetoclax, a substrate of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A and P-glycoprotein (P-gp), is approved for the treatment of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia who have received at least one prior therapy. This study evaluated the effect of azithromycin, a commonly used antibiotic in cancer patients and a P-gp inhibitor, on the pharmacokinetics of venetoclax. METHODS: In this single-center, open-label, nonfasting, two-period study, 12 healthy female subjects received a single 100 mg dose of venetoclax on day 1 of period 1 and day 3 of period 2. Subjects received azithromycin 500 mg on day 1 and 250 mg once daily on days 2 through 5. Serial blood samples for the determination of venetoclax concentrations were collected after dosing in both periods. Safety was evaluated throughout the study. RESULTS: Following coadministration of venetoclax with multiple doses of azithromycin, venetoclax maximum concentration and area under the curve to infinite time were 25% and 35% lower, respectively, compared to venetoclax administered alone. Venetoclax half-life and time to maximum concentration remained relatively unchanged when administered with azithromycin. Venetoclax was well tolerated with no serious adverse events reported. CONCLUSIONS: The modest changes in venetoclax exposures when given with azithromycin indicate that no dose adjustment would be needed when venetoclax is coadministered with azithromycin or other drugs with P-gp inhibitory potential. Azithromycin represents an alternative to other antimicrobial agents with higher potential to alter venetoclax pharmacokinetics such as clarithromycin, erythromycin, and ciprofloxacin. FUNDING: AbbVie in collaboration with Genentech/Roche.
Agarwal, SK; Tong, B; Bueno, OF; Menon, RM; Salem, AH
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