Comparison of Opioid-Based Patient-Controlled Analgesia with Physician-Directed Analgesia in Acute Pancreatitis: A Retrospective Cohort Study.
BACKGROUND: Patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) is commonly used for acute postoperative pain management. Clinicians may also use PCA in the management of acute pancreatitis (AP); however, there is limited data on its impact on patient outcomes. We aimed to characterize a cohort of patients receiving PCA therapy for pain management in AP compared to those patients receiving standard physician-directed delivery of analgesia. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of adult patients admitted with AP at a tertiary care center from 2008 to 2018. Exclusion criteria included patients with chronic opioid use, chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer. Primary outcomes include length of stay (LOS) and time to enteral nutrition. Secondary outcomes include proportion of patients discharged with opioid and complications. Multivariate regression analysis and t-test were used for analysis. RESULTS: Among 656 AP patients who met the criteria, patients receiving PCA (n = 62) and standard delivery (n = 594) were similar in admission pain score, Charlson Comorbidity Index, and pancreatitis severity. There were significantly greater proportion of women, Caucasians and nonalcoholics who received PCA therapy (p < 0.01) than standard delivery. Multivariate regression analysis revealed that patients in the PCA group have a longer LOS (7.17 vs. 5.43 days, p < 0.007, OR 1.03; 95% CI 1.01-1.07), longer time to enteral nutrition (3.84 days vs. 2.56 days, p = 0.012, OR 1.11; 95% CI 1.02-1.20), and higher likelihood of being discharged with opioids (OR 1.94; 95% CI 1.07-3.63, p = 0.03). CONCLUSION: The use of PCA in AP may be associated with poorer outcomes including longer LOS, time to enteral intake and a higher likelihood of being discharged with opioids.
Tintara, S; Shah, I; Yakah, W; Kowalczyk, JJ; Sorrento, C; Kandasamy, C; Ahmed, A; Freedman, SD; Kothari, DJ; Sheth, SG
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