Concurrent Definitive Immunoradiotherapy for Patients with Stage III-IV Head and Neck Cancer and Cisplatin Contraindication.

Journal Article (Journal Article;Multicenter Study)

PURPOSE: Although cisplatin plus radiotherapy is a standard treatment of locally advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (LA-HNSCC), cisplatin contraindication is common. Radiation elicits and promotes tumor-directed immune stimulation, which may potentiate anti-PD-1 therapy. We provide the first efficacy report of combined pembrolizumab and definitive radiotherapy in LA-HNSCC. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This single-arm, multi-institution, phase II study (NCT02609503) enrolled 29 cisplatin-ineligible patients. Patients received radiotherapy concurrently with three cycles of pembrolizumab 200 mg every 3 weeks followed by three adjuvant cycles. The primary endpoint was a progression-free survival (PFS) of ≥16 months. Correlative studies included peripheral blood flow cytometry and Luminex cytokine profiling. RESULTS: Reasons for cisplatin ineligibility included otopathy (69.0%), nephropathy (20.7%), and neuropathy (6.9%). With median follow-up of 21 months, estimated 24-month PFS and overall survival rates were 71% (95% confidence interval, 49%-84%) and 75% (51%-88%). The primary PFS endpoint has exceeded the hypothesis and its median has not been reached. Toxicities were typical of radiotherapy; however, high rates of grade 3/4 lymphopenia (58.6%) were observed. Flow cytometry revealed a relative decline in CD4 T cells and B cells, but not CD8 T cells. Upon treatment, frequencies of transitional B cells and tissue-like memory B cells increased, while resting memory B cells decreased. Patients with progression had greater percentages of baseline naïve B cells and fewer marginal zone B cells. CONCLUSIONS: Pembrolizumab and radiotherapy is efficacious in LA-HNSCC and should be evaluated in a randomized trial. The observed changes in B-cell markers deserve further study both as potential biomarkers and as therapeutic targets.

Full Text

Duke Authors

Cited Authors

  • Weiss, J; Sheth, S; Deal, AM; Grilley Olson, JE; Patel, S; Hackman, TG; Blumberg, JM; Galloway, TJ; Patel, S; Zanation, AM; Shen, CJ; Hayes, DN; Hilliard, C; Mehra, R; McKinnon, KP; Wang, H-H; Weissler, MC; Bauman, JR; Chera, BS; Vincent, BG

Published Date

  • August 15, 2020

Published In

Volume / Issue

  • 26 / 16

Start / End Page

  • 4260 - 4267

PubMed ID

  • 32371539

Pubmed Central ID

  • PMC7968114

Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)

  • 1557-3265

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

  • 10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-20-0230

Language

  • eng

Conference Location

  • United States