Cancer vaccine strategies using self-replicating RNA viral platforms.

Journal Article (Journal Article;Review)

The development and success of RNA-based vaccines targeting SARS-CoV-2 has awakened new interest in utilizing RNA vaccines against cancer, particularly in the emerging use of self-replicating RNA (srRNA) viral vaccine platforms. These vaccines are based on different single-stranded RNA viruses, which encode RNA for target antigens in addition to replication genes that are capable of massively amplifying RNA messages after infection. The encoded replicase genes also stimulate innate immunity, making srRNA vectors ideal candidates for anti-tumor vaccination. In this review, we summarize different types of srRNA platforms that have emerged and review evidence for their efficacy in provoking anti-tumor immunity to different antigens. These srRNA platforms encompass the use of naked RNA, DNA-launched replicons, viral replicon particles (VRP), and most recently, synthetic srRNA replicon particles. Across these platforms, studies have demonstrated srRNA vaccine platforms to be potent inducers of anti-tumor immunity, which can be enhanced by homologous vaccine boosting and combining with chemotherapies, radiation, and immune checkpoint inhibition. As such, while this remains an active area of research, the past and present trajectory of srRNA vaccine development suggests immense potential for this platform in producing effective cancer vaccines.

Full Text

Duke Authors

Cited Authors

  • Dailey, GP; Crosby, EJ; Hartman, ZC

Published Date

  • July 12, 2022

Published In

Start / End Page

  • 1 - 9

PubMed ID

  • 35821284

Pubmed Central ID

  • PMC9275542

Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)

  • 1476-5500

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

  • 10.1038/s41417-022-00499-6


  • eng

Conference Location

  • England