Real-world effectiveness of antifungal prophylaxis with posaconazole as the primary agent in patients with haematological malignancies.

Journal Article (Journal Article)

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Patients undergoing induction/reinduction chemotherapy for haematologic malignancies (HM) are at risk for invasive fungal infections (IFIs). In 2015, Duke University Hospital (DUH) implemented a new standardised fungal prophylaxis protocol for adult patients undergoing induction chemotherapy for acute lymphocytic leukaemia, acute myelocytic leukaemia and myelodysplastic syndrome. This study assessed the impact of protocol implementation on (1) use of antifungal prophylaxis, throughout the at-risk period and (2) patient outcomes such as IFI and mortality. METHODS: Retrospective, observational study of adult HM patients admitted to DUH for induction/reinduction chemotherapy pre- (7/1/2013-12/31/2014) and post- (1/1/2015-10/31/2016) implementation of standardised antifungal prophylaxis protocol (which recommended posaconazole as the first-line agent). Patients were followed for up to 100 days after initiation of induction chemotherapy to evaluate use of antifungal prophylaxis and patient outcomes. RESULTS: 218 patients with haematologic malignancies were included (90 pre, 128 post). Use of antifungal prophylaxis increased from 81.1% (pre) to 97.7% (post) (p < .0001). Overall, 71% received posaconazole as initial antifungal prophylaxis (64.4% pre, 75.7% post). Approximately one-fourth of patients (25.6%, pre vs 26.6%, post) developed an IFI (proven/probable or possible using modified EORTC definitions) (p = .868); 100-day mortality remained stable (18.9% pre vs 18.8% post, respectively, p = .979). Lack of antifungal prophylaxis and older age (≥60 years) were associated with higher risk of IFI. CONCLUSION: Implementation of a standardised protocol with posaconazole as the primary agent was associated with increased use of antifungal prophylaxis among patients undergoing induction/reinduction chemotherapy for haematologic malignancies in our hospital. Lack of antifungal prophylaxis was an independent predictor of IFIs, underscoring the importance of prophylaxis in this at-risk population.

Full Text

Duke Authors

Cited Authors

  • Strand, AM; Alexander, BD; Sarpong, E; Wong, JR; Engemann, A; Rizzieri, D; Wu, Y; Johnson, MD

Published Date

  • November 2022

Published In

Volume / Issue

  • 65 / 11

Start / End Page

  • 1050 - 1060

PubMed ID

  • 35816393

Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)

  • 1439-0507

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

  • 10.1111/myc.13495


  • eng

Conference Location

  • Germany