How to start an awake spine program: Protocol and illustrative cases.

Journal Article (Journal Article;Review)

Surgical techniques and technology are steadily improving, thereby expanding the pool of patients amenable for spine surgery. The growing and aging population in the United States further contributes to the increase in spine surgery cases. Traditionally, spine surgery is performed under general anesthesia. However, awake spinal surgery has recently gained traction due to evidence of decreased perioperative risks, postoperative opioid consumption, and costs, specifically in lumbar spine procedures. Despite the potential for improving outcomes, awake spine surgery has received resistance and has yet to become adopted at many healthcare systems. We aim to provide the fundamental steps in facilitating the initiation of awake spine surgery programs. We also present case reports of two patients who underwent awake spine surgery and reported improved clinical outcomes.

Full Text

Duke Authors

Cited Authors

  • Waguia, R; Touko, EK; Sykes, DAW; Kelly-Hedrick, M; Hijji, FY; Sharan, AD; Foster, N; Abd-El-Barr, MM

Published Date

  • December 2022

Published In

Volume / Issue

  • 13 /

Start / End Page

  • 69 - 77

PubMed ID

  • 35789808

Pubmed Central ID

  • PMC9249618

Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)

  • 2667-2421

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

  • 10.1016/j.ibneur.2022.05.009


  • eng

Conference Location

  • Netherlands