GLP-1 Receptor Blockade Reduces Stimulated Insulin Secretion in Fasted Subjects With Low Circulating GLP-1.

Journal Article (Journal Article)

CONTEXT: Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), an insulinotropic peptide released into the circulation from intestinal enteroendocrine cells, is considered a hormonal mediator of insulin secretion. However, the physiological actions of circulating GLP-1 have been questioned because of the short half-life of the active peptide. Moreover, there is mounting evidence for localized, intra-islet mediation of GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1r) signaling including a role for islet dipeptidyl-peptidase 4 (DPP4). OBJECTIVE: To determine whether GLP-1r signaling contributes to insulin secretion in the absence of enteral stimulation and increased plasma levels, and whether this is affected by DPP4. METHODS: Single-site study conducted at an academic medical center of 20 nondiabetic subjects and 13 subjects with type 2 diabetes. This was a crossover study in which subjects received either a DPP4 inhibitor (DPP4i; sitagliptin) or placebo on 2 separate days. On each day they received a bolus of intravenous (IV) arginine during sequential 60-minute infusions of the GLP-1r blocker exendin[9-39] (Ex-9) and saline. The main outcome measures were arginine-stimulated secretion of C-Peptide (C-PArg) and insulin (InsArg). RESULTS: Plasma GLP-1 remained at fasting levels throughout the experiments and IV arginine stimulated both α- and β-cell secretion in all subjects. Ex-9 infusion reduced C-PArg in both the diabetic and nondiabetic groups by ~14% (Pā€…<ā€….03 for both groups). Sitagliptin lowered baseline glycemia but did not affect the primary measures of insulin secretion. However, a significant interaction between sitagliptin and Ex-9 suggested more GLP-1r activation with DPP4i treatment in subjects with diabetes. CONCLUSION: GLP-1r activation contributes to β-cell secretion in diabetic and nondiabetic people during α-cell activation, but in the absence of increased circulating GLP-1. These results are compatible with regulation of β-cells by paracrine signals from α-cells. This process may be affected by DPP4 inhibition.

Full Text

Duke Authors

Cited Authors

  • Gray, SM; Hoselton, AL; Krishna, R; Slentz, CA; D'Alessio, DA

Published Date

  • August 18, 2022

Published In

Volume / Issue

  • 107 / 9

Start / End Page

  • 2500 - 2510

PubMed ID

  • 35775723

Pubmed Central ID

  • PMC9387711

Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)

  • 1945-7197

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

  • 10.1210/clinem/dgac396

Language

  • eng

Conference Location

  • United States