Does the Geographical Distribution of Facial Trauma Surgeons Correspond to Facial Trauma Burden? A Nationwide Population-Level Analysis.
It is unknown if craniofacial trauma services are inequitably distributed throughout the US. The authors aimed to describe the geographical distribution of craniofacial trauma, surgeons, and training positions nationwide. State-level data were obtained on craniofacial trauma admissions, surgeons, training positions, population, and income for 2016 to 2017. Normalized densities (per million population [PMP]) were ascertained. State/ regional-level densities were compared between highest/lowest. Risk-adjusted generalized linear models were used to determine independent associations. There were 790,415 craniofacial trauma admissions (x? = 2330.6 PMP), 28,004 surgeons (x? = 83.5 PMP), and 746 training positions (x? = 1.9 PMP) nationwide. There was significant state-level variation in the density PMP of trauma (median 1999.5 versus 2983.5, P < 0.01), surgeon (70.8 versus 98.8, P < 0.01), training positions (0 versus 3.4, P < 0.01) between lowest/highest quartiles. Surgeon distribution was positively associated with income and training positions density ( P < 0.01). Subanalysis revealed that there was an increase of 6.7 plastic and reconstructive surgeons/PMP for every increase of 1000 trauma admissions/PMP ( P < 0.01). There is an uneven state-level distribution of facial trauma surgeons across the US associated with income. Plastic surgeon distribution corresponded closer to craniofacial trauma care need than that of ENT and OMF surgeons. Further work to close the gap between workforce availability and clinical need is necessary.
Rios-Diaz, AJ; Kosyk, MS; Cunning, JR; Broach, RB; Naga, HI; Whitely, C; Serletti, JM; Swanson, JW
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