Can sural nerve injury be avoided in the sinus tarsi approach for calcaneal fracture?: A cadaveric study.
There is no consensus regarding the references to determine the exact location of the skin incision to minimize iatrogenic sural nerve injury in the sinus tarsi approach for calcaneal fracture.The purpose of this cadaveric study was to describe the anatomical course of the sural nerve in relation to easily identifiable landmarks during the sinus tarsi approach and to provide a more practical reference for surgeons to avoid sural nerve injury.Twenty-four foot and ankle specimens were dissected. The bony landmarks used in the following reference points were the tip of the lateral malleolus (point A), lateral border of the Achilles tendon on the collinear line with point A (point B), posteroinferior apex of the calcaneus (point C), inferior margin of the calcaneus on the plumb line through point A (point D), and tip of the fifth metatarsal base (point E). After careful dissection, the distances of the sural nerve to points A and B in the horizontal direction (lines D1 and D2), points A and C in the diagonal direction (lines D3 and D4), points A and D in the vertical direction (lines D5 and D6), and points A and E in the diagonal direction (lines D7 and D8) were measured.The median ratio of D1 to D1+D2, D3 to D3+D4, D5 to D5+D6, and D7 to D7+D8 were 0.37 (range, 0.26-0.50), 0.23 (range, 016-0.33), 0.35 (range, 0.25-0.45), and 0.32 (range, 0.20-0.45), respectively.The distance ratios from this study can be helpful to avoid sural nerve injury during the sinus tarsi approach for calcaneal fractures. Established standard incision may have to be modified to minimize sural nerve injury.
Park, J-H; Chun, D-I; Park, K-R; Park, G-H; Park, S; Yang, J; Cho, J
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