Mapping oxidative DNA damage at nucleotide level.
DNA damage induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS) is considered an important intermediate in the pathogenesis of human conditions such as cancer and aging. By developing an oxidative-induced DNA damage mapping version of the Ligation-mediated polymerase chain reaction (LMPCR) technique, we investigated the il vivo and in vitro frequencies of DNA base modifications caused by ROS in the human p53 and PGK1 gene. Intact human male fibroblasts were exposed to 50mM H2O2, or purified genomic DNA was treated with 5 mM H2O2, 100 microM Ascorbate, and 50 microM, 100 microM, or 100 microM of Cu(II), Fe(II), or Cr(VI) respectively. The damage pattern generated in vivo was nearly identical to the in vitro Cu(II) or Fe(III) damage patterns; damage was non-random with guanine bases heavily damaged. Cr(VI) generated an in vitro damage pattern similar to the other metal ions, although several unique thymine positions were damaged. Also, extra nuclear sites are a major contributor of metal ions (or metal-like ligands). These data show that the local probability of H2O2-mediated DNA damage is determined by the primary DNA sequence, with chromatin structure having a limited effect. The data suggest a model in which DNA-metal ion binding domains can accommodate different metalions. LMPCR's unique aspect is a blunt-end ligation of an asymmetric double-stranded linker, permitting exponential PCR amplification. An important factor limiting the sensitivity of LMPCR is the representation of target gene DNA relative to non-targeted genes; therefore, we recently developed a method to eliminate excess non-targeted genomic DNA. Restriction enzyme-digested genomic DNA is size fractionated by Continuous Elution Electrophoresis (CEE), capturing the target sequence of interest. The amount of target DNA in the starting material for LMPCR is enriched, resulting in a stronger amplification signal. CEE provided a 24-fold increase in the signal strength attributable to strand breaks plus modified bases created by ROS in the human p53 and PGK1 genes, detected by LMPCR. We are currently taking advantage of the enhanced sensitivity of target gene-enriched LMPCR to map DNA damage induced in human breast epithelial cells exposed to non-cytotoxic concentrations of H2O2.
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