Metal ion-dependent hydrogen peroxide-induced DNA damage is more sequence specific than metal specific.
The frequency of oxidative base damage along the human p53 and PGK1 genes was determined at nucleotide resolution by cleaving DNA at oxidized bases with endonuclease III and formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase and then using the ligation-mediated PCR technique to map induced break frequency. Damage was induced either in vivo by exposing cultured human male fibroblasts to H2O2 or in vitro by exposing purified genomic DNA to H2O2 plus ascorbate in the presence of Cu(II), Fe(III), or Cr(VI) metal ions. All four base damage patterns from either in vivo or in vitro treatments were nearly identical in both regions of the genome. The frequency of base damage varied along the DNA, with guanine being the most commonly damaged base. In the Fe(III)-mediated in vitro reactions, single-stranded breaks were almost completely suppressed by addition of sucrose, which facilitated mapping of base damage. The in vitro base damage pattern generated by Cr(VI), ascorbate, and H2O2 was similar to that of the other metal ions, with the exception of several unique positions; these were heavily damaged only in the presence of Cr(VI). Isolated nuclei suffered little oxidative base damage in the presence of ascorbate and H2O2, and we conclude that during H2O2 in vivo treatment of cells, metal ions (or metal-like ligands) are freed from the cytoplasm to migrate into the nucleus and supply the redox cycling ligands necessary for oxidative base damage. These data simplify the complexity of H2O2-induced oxidative damage and mutagenesis studies by demonstrating the commonality of damage catalyzed by different transition metal ions and by showing that the pattern of H2O2-mediated oxidative base damage is determined almost entirely by the primary DNA sequence, with chromatin structure having a limited effect. Our data suggest a model for base damage in which DNA-metal ion binding domains can equally accommodate a variety of different metal ions and thus are a key factor in determining the local probability of DNA damage.
Rodriguez, H; Holmquist, GP; D'Agostino, R; Keller, J; Akman, SA
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