Siyaphambili protocol: An evaluation of randomized, nurse-led adaptive HIV treatment interventions for cisgender female sex workers living with HIV in Durban, South Africa.

Journal Article (Journal Article)

In South Africa, 60% of female sex workers are estimated to be living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Many of these women face structural and individual-level barriers to initiating, accessing, and adhering to antiretroviral therapy (ART). While data are limited, it is estimated that less than 40% of sex workers living with HIV achieve viral suppression, leading to suboptimal clinical outcomes and sustained risks of onward sexual and vertical HIV transmission. Siyaphambili, a NINR/NIH-funded study, focuses on studying optimal implementation strategies for meeting HIV treatment needs among cisgender female sex workers living with HIV who are not virally suppressed. Here, we present the study protocol of this sequential multiple assignment randomized trial. In total, 800 viremic female sex workers will be enrolled into an 18-month adaptive implementation study to 1) compare the effectiveness and durability of a nurse-led decentralized ART treatment program versus an individualized case management approach, in isolation or in combination to achieve viral suppression and 2) estimate incremental cost-effectiveness of interventions and combinations of interventions. The primary outcome is a combined intention-to-treat outcome of retention in ART care and viral suppression at 18 months with secondary implementation outcomes. Siyaphambili aims to inform the implementation of and scale-up of HIV treatment services for female sex workers by determining the minimal package of services needed to achieve viral suppression and by characterizing individuals in need of more intensive HIV treatment approaches.

Full Text

Duke Authors

Cited Authors

  • Comins, CA; Schwartz, SR; Phetlhu, DR; Guddera, V; Young, K; Farley, JE; West, N; Parmley, L; Geng, E; Beyrer, C; Dowdy, D; Mishra, S; Hausler, H; Baral, S

Published Date

  • April 2019

Published In

Volume / Issue

  • 42 / 2

Start / End Page

  • 107 - 118

PubMed ID

  • 30644999

Pubmed Central ID

  • PMC6666398

Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)

  • 1098-240X

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

  • 10.1002/nur.21928


  • eng

Conference Location

  • United States