Age-Specific Global Prevalence of Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C, HIV, and Tuberculosis Among Incarcerated People: A Systematic Review.

Journal Article (Systematic Review;Review;Journal Article)

PURPOSE:This study aims to compare the global prevalence of hepatitis B, hepatitis C, HIV, and tuberculosis in incarcerated adolescents and young adults (AYAs) and older prisoners. METHODS:This study is a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies reporting the age-specific prevalence of each infection in prisoners. We grouped age-specific prevalence estimates into three overlapping age categories: AYA prisoners (<25 years), older prisoners (≥25 years), and mixed category (spanning age 25 years). We used random effects meta-analysis to estimate the relative risk (RR) of each infection in AYAs versus older prisoners. RESULTS:Among 72 studies, there was marked heterogeneity in prevalence estimates among AYA prisoners for all infections: hepatitis B (.4%-25.2%), hepatitis C (.0%-70.6%), HIV (.0%-15.8%), and active tuberculosis (.0%-3.7%). The pooled prevalence of HIV (RR = .39, 95% confidence interval .29-.53, I2 = 79.2%) and hepatitis C (RR = .51, 95% confidence interval .33-.78, I2 = 97.8%) was lower in AYAs than in older prisoners. CONCLUSIONS:The prevalence of HIV and hepatitis C is lower in AYA prisoners than in older prisoners. Despite lower prevalence, acquisition begins early among incarcerated populations. There is an urgent need for targeted, age-appropriate prevention, treatment, and harm reduction measures in and beyond custodial settings to reduce the incidence of infection in these extremely vulnerable young people.

Full Text

Duke Authors

Cited Authors

  • Kinner, SA; Snow, K; Wirtz, AL; Altice, FL; Beyrer, C; Dolan, K

Published Date

  • March 2018

Published In

Volume / Issue

  • 62 / 3S

Start / End Page

  • S18 - S26

PubMed ID

  • 29455713

Pubmed Central ID

  • PMC7413042

Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)

  • 1879-1972

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)

  • 1054-139X

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

  • 10.1016/j.jadohealth.2017.09.030


  • eng