Marked ethnic differences in HIV prevalence and risk behaviors among injection drug users in Dushanbe, Tajikistan, 2004.
OBJECTIVE: To examine differences by ethnicity of HIV prevalence and correlates among injection drug users (IDUs) in Dushanbe, Tajikistan. METHODS: The researchers enrolled 489 active adult IDUs in a cross-sectional risk factor study of HIV infection. Participants were provided HIV pre-and posttest counseling and risk reduction counseling and answered an interviewer-administered questionnaire. HIV-1 status was determined with rapid tests and confirmed with ELISA. RESULTS: Participants included four ethnicities: 204 Tajiks (49.1%), 145 Russians (29.7%), 58 Uzbeks (11.9%), and 46 participants of other nationalities (9.4%). Overall prevalence of HIV-1 infection was 12% and varied significantly by ethnicity: it was highest among ethnic Tajiks, at 19.2%; lowest among Russians and Uzbeks, at 3.4%; and 13% among other nationalities. Ethnic groups differed significantly in years injecting, receiving a needle from a needle exchange program (NEP), injecting in groups, having undergone drug treatment, reported condom use, and arrest history. Among Tajiks, HIV infection was significantly associated with daily injecting (OR 2.16); reporting that narcotics were very easy to obtain (OR 2.46); having undergone drug treatment (OR 2.75), and injecting "alone" (OR 3.12). CONCLUSIONS: Ethnic differences were strongly associated with HIV prevalence and risk behaviors in this multiethnic study, and prevention efforts might need to be targeted by ethnicity.
Stachowiak, JA; Tishkova, FK; Strathdee, SA; Stibich, MA; Latypov, A; Mogilnii, V; Beyrer, C
Volume / Issue
Start / End Page
International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)