Phenotypic and Genetic Spectrum of Autosomal Recessive Bestrophinopathy and Best Vitelliform Macular Dystrophy.

Journal Article (Journal Article)

PURPOSE: Autosomal recessive bestrophinopathy (ARB) and vitelliform macular dystrophy (VMD) are distinct phenotypes, typically inherited through recessive and dominant patterns, respectively. Recessively inherited VMD (arVMD) has been reported, suggesting that dominant and recessive BEST1-related retinopathies represent a single disease spectrum. This study compares adVMD, arVMD, and ARB to determine whether a continuum exists and to define clinical and genetic features to aid diagnosis and management. METHODS: One arVMD patient and nine ARB patients underwent standard ophthalmic examination, imaging, electrophysiology, and genetic assessments. A meta-analysis of reported BEST1 variants was compiled, and clinical parameters were analyzed with regard to inheritance and phenotype. RESULTS: Among 10 patients with biallelic BEST1 variants, three novel ARB variants (p.Asp118Ala, p.Leu224Gln, p.Val273del) were discovered. A patient with homozygous p.Glu35Lys was clinically unique, presenting with VMD, including hyperautofluorescence extending beyond the macula, peripheral punctate lesions, and shortened axial-length. A tritan-axis color vision deficit was seen in three of six (50%) of ARB patients. Attempts to distinguish recessively-inherited ARB and dominantly-inherited VMD genotypically, by variant frequency and residue location, did not yield significant differences. Literature meta-analysis with principle component analysis of clinical features demonstrated a spectrum of disease with arVMD falling between adVMD and ARB. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that arVMD is part of a continuum of autosomal recessive and dominant BEST1-related retinopathies. Detailed clinical and molecular assessments of this cohort and the literature are corroborated by unsupervised analysis, highlighting the overlapping heterogeneity among BEST1-associated clinical diagnoses. Tritan-axis color vision deficit is a previously unreported finding associated with ARB.

Full Text

Duke Authors

Cited Authors

  • Pfister, TA; Zein, WM; Cukras, CA; Sen, HN; Maldonado, RS; Huryn, LA; Hufnagel, RB

Published Date

  • May 3, 2021

Published In

Volume / Issue

  • 62 / 6

Start / End Page

  • 22 -

PubMed ID

  • 34015078

Pubmed Central ID

  • PMC8142704

Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)

  • 1552-5783

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

  • 10.1167/iovs.62.6.22


  • eng

Conference Location

  • United States