Interleukin-6 signaling mediates cartilage degradation and pain in posttraumatic osteoarthritis in a sex-specific manner.
Osteoarthritis (OA) and posttraumatic OA (PTOA) are caused by an imbalance in catabolic and anabolic processes in articular cartilage and proinflammatory changes throughout the joint, leading to joint degeneration and pain. We examined whether interleukin-6 (IL-6) signaling contributed to cartilage degradation and pain in PTOA. Genetic ablation of Il6 in male mice decreased PTOA-associated cartilage catabolism, innervation of the knee joint, and nociceptive signaling without improving PTOA-associated subchondral bone sclerosis or chondrocyte apoptosis. These effects were not observed in female Il6-/- mice. Compared with wild-type mice, the activation of the IL-6 downstream mediators STAT3 and ERK was reduced in the knees and dorsal root ganglia (DRG) of male Il6-/- mice after knee injury. Janus kinases (JAKs) were critical for STAT and ERK signaling in cartilage catabolism and DRG pain signaling in tissue explants. Whereas STAT3 signaling was important for cartilage catabolism, ERK signaling mediated neurite outgrowth and the activation of nociceptive neurons. These data demonstrate that IL-6 mediates both cartilage degradation and pain associated with PTOA in a sex-specific manner and identify tissue-specific contributions of downstream effectors of IL-6 signaling, which are potential therapeutic targets for disease-modifying OA drugs.
Liao, Y; Ren, Y; Luo, X; Mirando, AJ; Long, JT; Leinroth, A; Ji, R-R; Hilton, MJ
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