Drop-of-blood acoustic tweezing technique for integrative turbidimetric and elastometric measurement of blood coagulation.
Many patients develop coagulation abnormalities due to chronic and hereditary disorders, infectious disease, blood loss, extracorporeal circulation, and oral anticoagulant misuse. These abnormalities lead to bleeding or thrombotic complications, the risk of which is assessed by coagulation analysis. Current coagulation tests pose safety concerns for neonates and small children due to large sample volume requirement and may be unreliable for patients with coagulopathy. This study introduces a containerless drop-of-blood method for coagulation analysis, termed "integrated quasi-static acoustic tweezing thromboelastometry" (i-QATT™), that addresses these needs. In i-QATT™, a single drop of blood is forced to levitate and deform by the acoustic radiation force. Coagulation-induced changes in drop turbidity and firmness are measured simultaneously at different instants. The parameters describing early, intermediate, and late stages of the coagulation process are evaluated from the resulting graphical outputs. i-QATT™ rapidly (<10 min) detected hyper- and hypo-coagulable states and identified single deficiency in coagulation factors VII, VIII, IX, X, and XIII. The linear relationship (r2
> 0.9) was established between fibrinogen concentration and two i-QATT™ parameters: maximum clot firmness and maximum fibrin level. Factor XIII activity was uniquely measured by the fibrin network formation time (r2
= 0.9). Reaction time, fibrin formation rate, and time to firm clot formation were linearly correlated with heparin concentration (r2
> 0.7). tPA-induced hyperfibrinolysis was detected in the clot firmness output at 10 min. i-QATT™ provides comprehensive coagulation analysis in point-of-care or laboratory settings, well suited to the needs of neonatal and pediatric patients and adult patients with anemia or blood collection issues.
Luo, D; Chelales, EM; Beard, MM; Kasireddy, N; Khismatullin, DB
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