Recombinant Thrombomodulin Attenuates Preeclamptic Symptoms by Inhibiting High-Mobility Group Box 1 in Mice.
Preeclampsia (PE) is a common gestational complication that involves systemic endothelial dysfunction and inflammatory responses primarily due to placental damage. Recombinant thrombomodulin (rTM), a novel anticoagulant clinically used for disseminated intravascular coagulation, is reported to have a unique anti-inflammatory endothelial repair function by inhibiting proinflammatory mediator high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1). Despite the severe patient outcomes, there are currently no effective therapeutic options to treat PE. Here, we verified the efficacy of rTM as a novel therapeutic agent for PE using a murine model and human trophoblast cells. We revealed the therapeutic potential of rTM in an angiotensin II(Ang II)-induced PE mouse model. Injection of rTM significantly attenuated clinical features of PE, such as hypertension, proteinuria, fetal growth restriction, and impaired placental vasculature. Elevation of maternal soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt-1), a well-accepted causal factor of PE that induces systemic endothelial dysfunction, was suppressed in response to rTM treatment. Supporting these findings, our in vitro experiments revealed that rTM reduces Ang II-triggered overproduction of sFlt-1 in human trophoblast cells. Moreover, interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), well-known key inflammatory mediators in PE pathogenesis, were diminished by rTM. SiRNA knockdown experiments further determined that these processes were directly mediated by HMGB1. Our studies demonstrate that rTM exerts its clinical effect as HMBG1 inhibitor and ameliorates placental dysfunction, which is central to PE pathogenesis. Our findings suggest that rTM could be a promising therapeutic that significantly improve the outcomes of PE patients.
Oda, H; Nagamatsu, T; Schust, DJ; Cabral, H; Miyazaki, T; Iriyama, T; Kawana, K; Osuga, Y; Fujii, T
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